Viana Forum is a digital space for dialogue

Viana Forum on AngoNet is a digital space for dialogue between communities and local government in Luanda about planning and development. This website is a platform for sharing information about basic services in Viana that was created by Viana Forum members through participatory mapping and urban assessments with residents.

The data here marks a moment in time: this website provides a benchmark so that a few years from now, residents can ask whether conditions have improved in Viana and have concrete reference points to know whether they have.

Read More

Mapping Viana

Population Density Heatmap

Population Density by Neighborhood

Percentage annual population growth (2000 - 2008)

Structures added and demolished between 2008 and 2010

Percentage of new structures between 2008 and 2010 by neighborhood

Environmental vulnerability

Stand-pipes

MDG Analysis - Indicator 1 (Overcrowding)

MDG Analysis - Indicator 2 (Tenure Security)

MDG Analysis - Indicator 3 (Durable Structures)

MDG Analysis - Indicator 4 (Access to Safe Water)

MDG Analysis - Indicator 5 (Access to Improved Sanitation)

MDG Analysis - Overall Ranking

Density measures how many people there are living in each hectare. Viana has an average population density of 8 people per hectare – a hectare is a little smaller than the size of a football field. Because there is a large amount of open and agricultural land in Viana, the average population density is much lower than in areas where there is a lot of housing.
Density measures how many people there are living in each hectare. Viana has an average population density of 8 people per hectare – a hectare is a little smaller than the size of a football field. Because there is a large amount of open and agricultural land in Viana, the average population density is much lower than in areas where there is a lot of housing.
Some areas of the city are growing faster than others. Viana added 1 million new residents between 2000 and 2008. The population increased at an annual rate of 42.1%. In fact, Viana had the highest annual rate of growth in Luanda; the second highest growth rate was in Cacuaco, where the annual rate was 28.8%.

This map shows where new buildings have been constructed and where buildings have been demolished between 2008 and 2010. This map was created by Development Workshop using satellite imagery of Luanda to locate the rooftops of buildings. Patterns of construction and demolition were documented by comparing satellite images from 2008 and 2010.

Development Workshop created a map of the buildings in Luanda. The map shows where new buildings have been constructed and where buildings have been demolished between 2008 and 2010. Viana has the most open land of any municipality in Luanda for development, but new housing tends to be constructed close to where densities are already high.
As open land has become scarce, some residents have built housing near vulnerable areas such as lagoons, gullies, and streams that often flood. There are 9069 houses in these areas of risk in Viana.
Few residents in Viana have access to the public piped water system, so many obtain water at stand-pipes. Development Workshop is in the process of working with residents to map the locations of stand-pipes. This map will be updated once the survey has been completed.
Areas of Luanda have varying characteristics as a result of differences in street alignments, building types and materials, levels of housing tenure, and access to services and infrastructure. Using satellite photography and on-the-ground observation, Development Workshop created a map of 11 settlement typologies. The majority of Luanda residents live in musseques. The most common category of musseque – old musseques – have 2.3 million residents. There are 165,000 people living in the old urban centre and 240,000 residents in rural settlements.

Development Workshop conducted household surveys throughout Luanda in order to rank the 11 settlement typologies in regards to physical conditions in the city that support or are a barrier to achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

The results of the survey are displayed in these MDG maps. The maps indicate the locations in the city where different service and infrastructure improvements are needed and the relative challenges of implementing these upgrades.

Population density varies greatly throughout Luanda at a very fine-grain scale. Even within a square-hectare area, densities may vary. Where densities are high, the need is greater for services and infrastructure. The potential for health risks increases with higher densities too. Generally, densities are high in the older areas of the city. Some musseques near the old urban centre have a population density of over 500 people per hectare.

Development Workshop conducted household surveys throughout Luanda in order to rank the 11 settlement typologies in regards to physical conditions in the city that support or are a barrier to achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

The results of the survey are displayed in these MDG maps. The maps indicate the locations in the city where different service and infrastructure improvements are needed and the relative challenges of implementing these upgrades.

This indicator measures both the level of tenure of housing by residents in the settlement typology and the degree to which public infrastructure can be installed given the condition of roads and rights of way. Old and peripheral musseques as well as rural settlements require reorganization before services can be installed, and residents in these areas face higher risks of eviction if tenure is not secure.

Development Workshop conducted household surveys throughout Luanda in order to rank the 11 settlement typologies in regards to physical conditions in the city that support or are a barrier to achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

The results of the survey are displayed in these MDG maps. The maps indicate the locations in the city where different service and infrastructure improvements are needed and the relative challenges of implementing these upgrades.

This indicator measures whether residents live in a settlement typology where housing is structurally stable and safe from wind and rain. Materials such as corrugated iron are indicators of limited financial resources.

Development Workshop conducted household surveys throughout Luanda in order to rank the 11 settlement typologies in regards to physical conditions in the city that support or are a barrier to achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

The results of the survey are displayed in these MDG maps. The maps indicate the locations in the city where different service and infrastructure improvements are needed and the relative challenges of implementing these upgrades.

This indicator measures whether residents live in a settlement typology where they have access to clean water. The majority of residents in Luanda obtain drinking water through the informal market. Water from the informal market is both expensive and not from safe water supplies.

Development Workshop conducted household surveys throughout Luanda in order to rank the 11 settlement typologies in regards to physical conditions in the city that support or are a barrier to achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

The results of the survey are displayed in these MDG maps. The maps indicate the locations in the city where different service and infrastructure improvements are needed and the relative challenges of implementing these upgrades.

This indicator measures whether residents live in a settlement typology where they have access to sanitation facilities. Luanda's sewage system only has coverage in the old urban centre. Some new planned developments also have sewage system. In most areas of Luanda, residents use septic tanks or pit latrines. Access to sanitation is inadequate in peripheral musseques and rural settlements.

Development Workshop conducted household surveys throughout Luanda in order to rank the 11 settlement typologies in regards to physical conditions in the city that support or are a barrier to achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

The results of the survey are displayed in these MDG maps. The maps indicate the locations in the city where different service and infrastructure improvements are needed and the relative challenges of implementing these upgrades.

This ranking is an average of the five Millennium Development Goals indicators. The higher the ranking, the more likely the area is in need of service and infrastructure improvements. In settlement typologies with a ranking of 3, a combination of these factors creates conditions in which residents are exposed to a high level of environmental vulnerability.

Persons per hecatre:
0-125,000
125,000-250,000
250,000-375,000
375,000-500,000
500,000-625,000
625,000+
Percentage:
N/A
-15-0
0-15
15-30
30-45
45-60
60+
Structures Added 2008 - 2010
Structures Demolished 2008 - 2010
Percentage:
0-3
3-10
10-20
20-100
100+
100m buffers
200m buffers
Standpost
Score:
1 - Low Density (Less than 100 people per hectare.)
2 - Medium Density (100 to 300 people per hectare.)
3 - High Density (More than 300 people per hectare.)
Score:
1 - Organized / Planned Settlements (Planned areas with allowances for public infrastructure and secure or provisional tenure.)
2 - Upgradable Settlements (Organized musseques with aligned streets where public infrastructure could be installed.)
3 - Unorganized Settlements (Settlements with unorganized urban layout that is difficult to upgrade with urban services; these need reorganization before installment of service infrastructure.)
Score:
1 - Ceramic Bricks and Tiles, Cement Blocks (The most expensive materials traditionally used in high-rise buildings in the city centre.)
2 - Adobe, Wood, Corrugated Iron (If well-maintained, provides sufficient protection from wind and rain.)
3 - Pau-a-pique, Corrugated Iron (for building), Thatch Roof (Pau-a-pique is a traditional mixture of wood and clay, but rarely used today because of lack of wood.)
Score:
1 - Connection to Public Water Pipes (Households obtain water through piped connections to the formal water supply network.)
2 - Public Water Taps / Manual Pumps (Households obtain water through water taps or standpipes.)
3 - No access to safe water (Households obtain water through the informal market, including purchasing water from cistern trucks, private taps or tanks, bottled water, or unprotected wells.)
Score:
1 - Connection to Sewage System and Regular Waste Collection (Household connected to sewage system, which has limited coverage in the old city centre; waste removal services at least once a week.)
2 - Septic Tanks / Improved Dry Pit Latrines and Irregular Waste Collection (Households has septic tank or pit latrine, which in Luanda are considered improved sanitation facilities; communal rubbish deposits are irregularly cleared by waste removal trucks.)
3 - Inadequate / No Facilities and No Waste Services (Households access sanitation facilities at uncovered pit latrines or public latrines; no waste collection and waste is disposed of by residents by burying or burning it.)
Score:
1 - 1.5 Low
1.5 - 2.5 Medium
2.5 - 3 High
Typologies:
Rural Settlements
Owner-built on Planned Sites
Bairro Popular
Social Housing Zones
Old Musseques
Transitional Musseques
Organized Musseques
Peripheral Musseques
Old Urban Centre
New Suburbs and Condominiums
Industrial Zone

Viana is growing everyday as people move to Luanda and come to the area to find employment and housing. Viana is one of the fastest-growing areas of Luanda because it still has open land – so people from other areas of Luanda come here looking for plots. The arrival of so many new people influences what kinds of housing are available, what streets are like, and whether people face physical risks.

(Source: Development Workshop Survey, 2012)

Viana Atlas Survey

In 2013, the Forum surveyed 295 households in Viana during 23 focus group discussions about basic services and the conditions of the built environment. The results of the survey are presented in the Viana Atlas along with other data collected by Development Workshop.

Population

Viana is located south-west of the center of the city and has about 1.3 million residents, making it the most populous municipality in Luanda. However, population estimates of Viana differ. These differences have major implications in regards to the levels of basic services that need to be provided.

Luanda Population 2008-2010
Viana Age Pyramid

Viana grew especially rapidly during the decade between 2000 and 2008. The current need for services are high because most of the new residents in Viana settled in areas without infrastructure.

Back to top of Key Viana Data

Water

Gaps in public services result in high prices for water for residents. About 13% of residents have public water service in Viana. In a focus group discussion, residents said that 99% of households pay more than the real price of 5 kwanza for a 20-liter container.

SOLUTION: EPAL has planned to install 3500 household connections by end of 2013. By end of 2013 more than 14000 are expected to benefit from the household water connection.

Back to top of Key Viana Data

Sanitation

Lack of sanitation facilities in Viana leads to high levels of water-borne disease. About 13% of households have a connection to a sewer system. This is less than the proportion of households with sewer connections in Luanda as a whole. When there is a lack of sewer connections, open spaces, gullies, and streams are utilized for sanitation. Twenty-one percent of households have no access to sanitation facilities at all.

%HH Sewer - Viana

%HH Sewer - Luanda

Back to top of Key Viana Data

Waste

Waste collection in Viana is infrequent. Nearly 17% of households said waste is regularly collected, compared to 81% of households in Luanda as a whole. Rubbish collection is important because it addresses the health impacts of solid waste on many fronts: in the home, at work, and in public spaces in the city.

%HH Solid Waste - Cucuaco

%HH Solid Waste - Luanda

Back to top of Key Viana Data

Housing

As more people move to Viana, housing becomes crowded. The average population density – the number of people per acre – is 8, which is lower than the average density of 25 people per hectare for Luanda. However, because there is open and agricultural land in Viana, the average density does not reflect the actual densities in the most crowded areas – where the density may be more than 300 per hectare.

Luanda = 25 People / Hectare
Viana = 7.9 People / Hectare

Back to top of Key Viana Data

Education

About 15% of school-age children in Viana are not attending school. This proportion is based on an estimation that 40,000 out of 273,000 school-going age children are not in school.

School Going Age Children Out of School
Children Out of School
School Going Age Children

Back to top of Key Viana Data

Health

A very high proportion of households reported occurrences of malaria in Viana – though there are no official statistics on the total number of cases of disease.

Back to top of Key Viana Data

Learn More about the Forum and Download the Full Atlas Here